Puerperal Infection: Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment


Congratulations on your little one’s arrival! The postpartum period is a time of joy and adjustment as you settle into your new role as a mother. However, it’s also essential to be aware of potential health concerns during this time, including puerperal infections. In this article, we will discuss the types, risk factors, causes, signs, and symptoms of postpartum infections, empowering you with valuable knowledge to ensure your well-being.

puerperal infection

In This Article:

What Is A Puerperal Infection?

Puerperal infection, also known as postpartum infection, refers to an infection that occurs in the reproductive tract following childbirth. These infections can range from mild to severe, posing potential risks to the mother’s health if left untreated.

Types Of Postpartum Infections

Following childbirth, postpartum women are susceptible to several types of infections, including endometritis, urinary tract infections (UTIs), wound infections (such as a surgical incision or episiotomy), and mastitis. These infections can occur due to various factors, including changes in the body’s immune response and the introduction of foreign materials during childbirth.


Risk Factors and Causes of Puerperal Infections

Numerous risk factors can make postpartum women more susceptible to developing infections. These include prolonged labour, caesarean delivery, premature rupture of membranes, multiple vaginal examinations during labour, and the presence of bacterial vaginosis. Furthermore, factors such as maternal obesity and anaemia can also contribute to an increased risk of developing postpartum infections. Understanding these risk factors can help you and your healthcare provider take proactive steps to minimise the likelihood of infection.

Signs and Symptoms of a Postpartum Infection

  1. Fever: A persistent fever, generally defined as a temperature of 100.4 °F (38 °C) or higher, can be an indicator of a postpartum infection.
  2. Abdominal Pain: Severe or worsening pain in the abdominal area, especially in the lower abdomen, should be promptly addressed.
  3. Abnormal Vaginal Discharge: Foul-smelling or unusually heavy vaginal discharge may signal an infection.
  4. Pain or Redness at the Incision Site: If you had a caesarean section or an episiotomy, pay attention to any unusual pain or redness at the site.
  5. Breast Pain and Swelling: For nursing mothers, mastitis can manifest as breast pain, redness, and swelling. These symptoms may be accompanied by flu-like symptoms such as chills and body aches.

Can Puerperal Infections Cause Complications?

Puerperal infections can indeed lead to complications if left untreated. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the uterus, urinary tract, and surgical wounds from caesarean sections. If not effectively managed, puerperal infections can result in serious conditions such as endometritis, sepsis, and even infertility. It is crucial for postpartum women to be aware of the potential complications associated with puerperal infections and to seek medical help at the first sign of infection.


Can Puerperal Infections Be Prevented?

Preventing puerperal infections is possible with various measures. Good hygiene practices, such as regular handwashing, can significantly reduce the risk of infections. Proper care of the perineal area after childbirth and maintaining the cleanliness of any surgical incisions can also help prevent infections. Additionally, healthcare providers may prescribe antibiotics prophylactically to reduce the risk of developing puerperal infections after childbirth. It is important for postpartum women to follow their healthcare provider’s instructions closely to minimise the risk of infection.

How Is The Puerperal Infection Diagnosed?

Prompt and accurate diagnosis of puerperal infections is essential for effective treatment. Healthcare providers may use a combination of physical examinations, laboratory tests, and imaging studies to diagnose puerperal infections. Symptoms such as fever, abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, and malaise may prompt further investigation. Laboratory tests, including blood tests and cultures, can help identify the specific infectious agent responsible for the symptoms. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scans may be used to assess the extent of infection in the pelvic region.

What Is Postpartum Sepsis?

Postpartum sepsis, also known as puerperal sepsis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that arises from an infection in the genital tract following childbirth. This infection can lead to severe complications if it is not promptly addressed. Postpartum sepsis commonly results from untreated or poorly managed perineal or caesarean wound infections, endometritis, or urinary tract infections.

In addition to physical symptoms such as fever, chills, abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, and foul-smelling lochia, postpartum sepsis can also manifest with a rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, low blood pressure, and altered mental status. Prompt recognition of these signs is crucial in preventing the condition from escalating and becoming life-threatening.


How Are Postpartum Infections Treated?

The treatment of postpartum infections typically involves a combination of antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and, in severe cases, hospitalization. Antibiotics are often prescribed to combat the underlying infection, and the choice of antimicrobial agents is based on the type of infection and the susceptibility of the causative microorganisms.

Supportive care may include fluid resuscitation, pain management, and close monitoring of vital signs. In more severe cases, where sepsis or septic shock is present, immediate hospitalisation and intensive care may be necessary to stabilise the patient and prevent further complications.

What Is the Outlook for Puerperal Infections?

With timely and appropriate medical intervention, most cases of postpartum infections have a favourable prognosis. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can significantly worsen the outlook, leading to potentially life-threatening consequences. It’s important for postpartum women to be vigilant about any concerning symptoms and promptly seek medical attention.


Puerperal infections present a significant concern for postpartum women, requiring vigilance and proactive measures to mitigate risks and ensure optimal maternal health. Early recognition of symptoms, prompt medical intervention, and preventive strategies play pivotal roles in reducing the burden of postpartum infections and promoting postpartum well-being. By raising awareness and fostering open communication between healthcare providers and postpartum women, we can work towards a safer and healthier postpartum period for all.



  1. https://www.healthline.com/health/puerperal-infection